Assessment of histopathological effect of factory effluents on the liver and kidney tissues of chickens (Gallus gallus domestica) reared around factory sites in Nnewi Metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria

A N Okpogba, E C Ogbodo, M N Izuogu, A K Amah, D C Ejiofor, I Wopara, F N Ujowundu, C Nwanegwo, E U Modo, C N Chinaka

Abstract


Exposure to factory effluents comes with deleterious consequences. The purpose of this study was to assess the histopathological effect of factory effluents on the liver and kidney tissues of chickens (Gallus gallus domestica) reared around factory sites in Nnewi Metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria. A total of twenty-nine chicks comprising of sixteen chicks exposed to factory sites and thirteen non-exposed chicks were grown to adult birds (chickens) for the study and were allowed to feed from the surrounding homeland of the factories including lead acid battery manufacturing factory (A), metal fabricating factory (B) and metal forging factory (C) respectively until they were aged between four and five months as adult birds (chickens) for the study. The chickens were sacrificed to obtain the liver and kidney tissues for histological analyses. The histopathological evaluation of the effect of the factory effluents on the liver and kidney tissues of birds reared around the four factories (A-D) and control were done by microscopic examination of haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections. The results obtained in factory A, B and C showed widening of the liver central vein and thickening of the vessels with invasion of the surrounding areas by chronic inflammatory cells as against the controls which showed fairly normal liver tissues with normal liver parenchyma cells with a central vein containing blood cells. Also, the photomicrographs of the kidney tissues of birds reared around factory A, B and C showed evidence of marked glomerulo-nephritis and hypercellularity with evidence of glomerulosclerosis and hyalinization of the glomeruli as against the normal glomeruli and tubules found in the control birds. These results indicate that the environment where these birds are reared is a potential threat to the lives of the birds reared around these factories.

Keywords: Factory site, Factory effluents, Liver, Kidney, Chicken (Gallus gallus domestica), Nnewi metropolis.


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