Thyroid disorders in patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding

Ajit Kumar Nayak

Abstract


Thyroid hormone plays an important role in the regulation of menstrual cycle in women. Thyroid dysfunctions are frequently associated with dysfunctional uterine bleeding which is a type of abnormal uterine bleeding in absence of organic disease of the genital tract. This hospital based prospective study
was carried out on 150 women in different age groups who presented with dysfunctional uterine bleeding in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, F.M. Medical College & Hospital, Balasore, Odisha over a period of one year. Thyroid function test was done and was correlated with abnormal bleeding patterns and endometrial histopathological study. Out of 150 patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding, 27 (18%) had hypothyroidism, 2(1.33%) had hyperthyroidism and 121(80.67%) were euthyroid. Majority i.e. 96(64%) were in the age group of 26-35 years, out of which 21(21.87%) had hypothyroidism and one (1.04%) was hyperthyroid. Menorrhagia and metrorrhagia were the most common pattern of menstrual irregularities noticed among the patients having hypothyroidism (81.48%) . 52.04%, 30.62% and 17.34% patients had proliferative pattern, secretory pattern and endometrial hyperplasia respectively. 21.5% of proliferative endometrium, 23.33% of secretory endometrium and 17.64% of endometrial hyperplasia were seen in histopathological study of patients having hypothyroidism. Most of the patient with hypothyroidism
i.e. 70.37% had normal endometrial thickness found during pelvic  ultrasonography. Prevalence of thyroid disorders particularly hypothyroidism is quite common in patients having dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
Therefore, thyroid function test should be done in all patients with menstrual irregularities to avoid unnecessary hormonal treatment and surgical intervention.

Keywords: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding, Hypothyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, Thyroid disorder.


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