Pulmonary hydatidosis presenting as pyopneumothorax in a 15 year old male

Gaurang Aurangabadkar, Saood Ali, Ulhas Jadhav, Ajay Lanjewar


Pulmonary hydatid cyst is an exceptional cause of pyopneumothorax6 that should be considered in countries where hydatid disease is endemic. The documented rates of simple pneumothorax in patients with pulmonary hydatidosis ranges from 2.4-6.2%. Hydatidosis is a parasitic zoonosis of the genus Echinococcus that infects herbivores and humans in its larvae stage(hydatid) and in paediatric population, generally presents as pulmonary hydatidosis. Misdiagnosis of this condition as tubercular in origin can cause treatment and prognostic delays for the patient. We report a case of a 15 year old male presenting with complaints of breathlessness (Grade 2 MMRC)
since 3 months and dry cough, low grade fever with chills since 3 months. He had previously received AKT therapy and IV antibiotics. His blood investigations were normal. His sputum for AFB, CBNAAT was negative. His initial chest xray was suggestive of right sided hydropneumothorax. CECT Thorax revealed features suggestive of hydatid cyst in right posterobasal segment lower lobe with loculated pyopneumothorax with collapsed and consolidated right lung with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. After admission, Intercostal chest drainage tube was inserted on the right side and connected to underwater seal and pleural fluid was drained. Pleural fluid investigations revealed exudative effusion by Lights criteria, ADA was 150, culture and sensitivity revealed no growth and cytology revealed features of empyema. The patient was started on IV Piperacillin+Tazobactam, IV Metronidazole and Tab Albendazole for 14 days
along with AKT considering raised pleural fluid ADA levels as suggestive of tubercular pleural effusion. The patients hydatid serology (Echinococcus IgG Antibody ELISA- 0.88) came out to be positive which confirmed our diagnosis of hydatidosis. After repeat chest x ray, there was resolution noted in effusion and
ICD tube was removed and the patient was discharged on oral antibiotics for 14 days and Tab Albendazole for 3 months.

Keywords: Hydatid cyst,  Pyopneumothorax, Albendazole, Pleural effusion.

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