Seizure in children: How important is EEG & Neuroimaging?

Sunil Kumar Agarwalla

Abstract


Seizure in children are generally indicating a potentially serious underlying systemic or CNS disorders that require thorough clinical examination, investigation and management.  It is therefore important to establish
accurate diagnosis of seizure and its etiology to manage such patients appropriately. We carried out this study to evaluate different etiology of seizures and its correlation with abnormal EEG & abnormal neuroimaging in the age group of 2mo to 14 years. 200 children presented with seizure to our department from January 2019 to November 2020 were enrolled in this prospective hospital-based study. Detailed history, clinical examination, investigation with special emphasis to EEG & neuroimaging was done and different correlation was drawn by using SSPS 18.0 statistical analysis. Among 200 cases, 6 to 10yr. age group constituted maximum (49%) number of cases. Male to female ratio is 1.5:1. GTCS is the predominant pattern of seizure (60%) in all age groups. EEG abnormality is found in 45%, mostly in focal seizure type. Neuroimaging abnormality found in 29%. Maximum cases (30%) had infectious etiology. Childhood seizure needs detailed history taking and careful examination. Vedio recording shown by parents / caregivers really help towards differentiating seizure from seizure mimics. EEG has a role in specific seizure type; Neuroimaging at times helps in diagnosis. There are few studies that describe neuroimaging [Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance
Imaging (MRI)] and Electroencephalogram (EEG) data in children who present with new-onset seizures. The EEG is recommended as a part of the neurodiagnostic evaluation of the child with an apparent first unprovoked seizure.

Keywords: Seizure, GTCS, EEG, Neuroimaging.


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