A prospective clinico-etiological study of 100 cases of pancytopenia in a tertiary care hospital in Eastern India

Swain Santosh Kumar, Nayak Rajeeb Kumar, Majhi Majha, Padhi Prabhat Kumar, Behera Manoranjan, Palai Sabita


Background: Pancytopenia is a hematological entity which is relatively common. Its evaluation is important for arriving at an early and correct diagnosis, to aid in appropriate management.
Materials and Methods: It was an observational study conducted in the Department of General Medicine and Clinical Hematology of our institute from June 2019 to May 2020. Clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters of 100 pancytopenic patients were evaluated and descriptive statistics was used.
Results: The age ranged from 18-75 years. The commonest presentation was easy fatigability and fever. Besides pallor, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were the presenting signs. Megaloblastic anaemia was detected in 64% followed by aplastic anaemia in 12% and acute leukemia in 6% patients. Among infective
etiologies, two cases of malaria (P. falciparum). And each case of HIV, tuberculosis and dengue were seen. Lowest Hb% of 1.8 gm/dl, lowest total leucocyte count (TLC) of 500cells/cmm and lowest total platelet count (TPC) of 4000 cells/cmm was noted in a case of aplastic anemia. Macrocytic anemia was predominant blood picture. Hypercellular marrow was noted in 70(70%) cases and common cause was megaloblastic anemia, followed by leukaemia. Hypocellular marrow was noted in 12(12%) patients with aplastic anemia
being commonest cause.
Conclusion: In our study diagnosis of pancytopenia and its causes were ascertained by hematological investigations. An early and prompt treatment was given according to the cause and severity. Most of the cases had good prognosis due to a treatable cause.

Keywords: Pancytopenia, Megaloblastic anaemia, Aplastic anaemia.

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