Risk factors of breast cancer among women in Central India

Murtuza Rangwala, Murtaza Akhtar, Divish Saxena, Anil Kad, Mustafa Taskeen


Most common malignancy affecting women worldwide is breast cancer accounting for more than one million cases. The exposure to various risk factors attributes the geographical variation in incidence of breast cancer. Thus, study of risk factors of breast cancer is important and might contribute to current knowledge on this important topic. Hence the present study was carried out to study risk factors of breast cancer in Central India. In a tertiary care hospital based longitudinal study, 85 histopathologically or cytologically confirmed cases of breast cancer were enrolled. Particulars age at menarche, menopause and first full term pregnancy, marital status, parity of patient and history and duration of breast feeding and family history of breast cancer in first degree relative were taken. Mean age of occurrence of carcinoma breast was 50.01± 11.592 years, of menarche was 15.21 ±1.381years, of menopause was 44.94±5.016 years, of reproductive age was 29.52 ±4.661 years, of first full term pregnancy was23.13 ± 4.2556 years. Married patients were 82(96.47%) of patients, 81(95.3%) had no family history. 82(96.5%) of cases had breast fed their children and mean duration of breast feeding was19.2± 9.932 months.None of the risk factors described in literature were classically seen in present study further suggesting the awareness of breast cancer and breast self examination the need of hour in current scenario in rural India.


Keywords: Breast cancer, Risk factors, Awareness

Full Text:



Michae IJ, Jemal A. Cancer epidemiology, prevention and screening. Cancer Medicine. Hollan. Frei. American Cancer Society. Philadelphia: BC Decker Inc; 2003. p. 367-81.

Zeleniuch JA, Roy ES. Epidemiology of breast cancer. In: Roses FD, editors. Breast Cancer. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2005. p. 3-14.

Pal SK, Mittal B. Improving cancer care in India: Prospects and challenges. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2004;5:226-8.

Hadjiiski L, Sahiner B, Helvie M, Chan H, Roubidoux M, Paramagul C, et al. Breast masses: Computer: Aided diagnosis with serial mammograms. Radiology 2006;240:343-56.

Dumitrescu RG, Cotarla I. Understanding breast cancer risk-where do we stand in 2005? J Cell Mol Med 2005;9:208-21.

Chandra AB. Problems and prospects of cancer of the breast in India. J Indian Med Assoc 1979;72:43-5

Indian Council of Medical Research, BULLETIN, Vol 40, No: 2, February, 2010, page 11

Yeole BB. Trends in cancer incidence in female breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri, and ovary in India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2008;9:119-22.

Parmar V, Badwe RA. Guidelines for management of breast cancer. In: Kant R, Singh L, Malik VK, Agarawal PN, Kaza RCM, Lal P, editors. Oncology and surgery. New Delhi: Maulana Azad Medical College; 2004. p. 216-30.

Althuis DM, Dozier JM, Anderson FW, Devesa SS, Brinton LA. Global trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality 1973-1997. Int J Epidemiol 2005;34:405-12.

Ma H, Bernstein L, Ross R, Ursin G. Hormone-related risk factors for breast cancer in women under age 50 years by estrogen and progesterone receptor status: Results from a case-control and a case-case comparison. Breast Cancer Res 2006;8:R39.

Pharoah PD, Day NE, Duffy S, Easton DF, Ponder BA, Family history and the risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis International Journal of cancer1997 May 29; 71(5):800-09.

Danaei Goodarz, Hoorn Stephen Vander, Lopez Alan D, Murray Christopher J L, Ezzati Majid, and the Comparative Risk Assessment collaborating group (Cancers)* Causes of cancer in the world: comparative risk assessment of nine behavioural and environmental risk factors Lancet2005; 366:1784-93.

Siddique MS, Kayani N, Sulaiman S, Hussainy AS, Shah SH, Muzaffar S-Breast Carcinoma in Pakistani females: a morphological study of 572 breast specimen. J Pak Med Assoc 2000;50: 174-7.

Raina V, Bhutani M, Bedi R et al: clinical features and prognostic factors of early breast cancer at a major cancer in North India.Ind J Cancer.2005;42:40-45.

Pakseresht S, Ingle GK, Bahadur AK, Ramteke VK, Singh MM, Garg S, and Agarwal PN. Risk factors with breast cancer among women in Delhi. Indian Journal of Cancer,2009; 46(2):132-138.

Chakrabarti Suchismita, Karmakar Rupam, Barui Gopinath, Maity Pradip, Bandyopadhyay Anindya, Roy Anup. Prevalenceof known prognostic factors in female breast carcinoma including oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her2neu status-a study in tertiary care centre. JIMA december2012;110(12):876-879.

Asegaonkar Shilpa, Chaudhari S C, Bardapurkar J S, lipid (rpfile in breast cancer patients from rural India, JIMA, November 2012;110(11):831.

Albergaria, A.; Ricardo, S.; Milanezi, F.; Carneiro, V. T.; Amendoeira, I.; Vieira, D.; Cameselle-Teijeiro, J.; Schmitt, F. "Nottingham Prognostic Index in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A reliable prognostic tool?". BMC Cancer. 2011;11:299

A K Sen and T K Das Gupta, Cancer of the breast and its treatment, Ind J Surg,11:832-847.

Rakesh Chopra: The Indian Scene Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 19, No 18s (September 15 Supplement), 2001: pp 106s-111s.

Agarwal G, Pradeep PV, Aggarwal V, Yip CH, Cheung PS(2007). Spectrum of breast cancer in Asian women. World J Surg, 31, 1031-40

Shavers VL, Harlan LC, Stevens JL (2003). Racial/ethnic variation in clinical presentation, treatment, and survival among breast cancer patients <35. Cancer, 97, 134-47.

Mathew A, Pandey M, Rajan B. Do younger women with non-metastatic and non-inflammatory breast carcinoma have poor prognosis? World J Surg Oncol,2004; 2, 2.

Abbasis S, Azimi C, Othman F, Einollahi N, Dashti N, Nabatchran F, and Ismail P. 2009. Risk factors for breast cancer in Iranian women: a case-control study. International Journal of Cancer Research,5(1):1-11.

Travis RC and Key T J. Oestrogen exposure and breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Research,2003;5(5):239-47.

Kotsopoulos J, Lubinski J, Lynch HT, Neuhausen SL, Ghadirian P, Isaacs C, Weber B, Kim-Sing C, Foulkes WD, Gershoni-Baruch R, Ainsworth P, Friedman E, Daly M, Garber JE, Karlan B, Olopade OI, Tung N, Saal HM, Eisen A, Osborne M, Olsson H, Gilchrist D, Sun P, and Narod SA. 2005. Age at menarche and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Cancer Causes and Control, 16:667-674.

Colditz G, Baer H, Tamini R, Epidemiology of breast cancer. New York: oxford university press, 2005.

Breast and cervical cancer in 187 countries between 1980 and 2010: a systematic analysis Mohammad H Forouzanfar MD, Kyle J Foreman MPH, Allyne M Delossantos BS, Prof Rafael Lozano MD, Prof Alan D Lopez PhD, Prof, Dr Christopher J L Murray MD, Mohsen Naghavi MD The Lancet - 15 September 2011.

Winer EP, Morrow M, Osborne CK, Harris JR (2000). Cancer of the breast; Section 2, Malignant tumors of the breast, in: T.V. Devita (6th edition.), Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, J.B. Lippcott, Philadelphia, pp. 1651-1659.

Henderson BE, Ross RK, Bernstein L (1988). Estrogens as a cause of human cancer: the Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Foundation Award Lecture. Cancer Res 48: 246-253.

Lai FM, Chen, Ku HC et al: A case control study of parity, age at first full term pregnancy, breast feeding and breast cancer in Taiwanese women. Proc Natl Sci Repub China B 1996;20:71-77.

Lodha S Rama. Risk factors for breast cancer among women in Bhopal urban Agglomerate: A case control study. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer prevention 2011;12:2111-2115.

RomieuI, Hernandez-Avila M, Lazcano E, Lopez L and Romero- Jaime R(1996): Breast cancer and lactation history in mexican women. Am J epidemiol 143:543-552.

Collaborative group on hormonal factors in breast cancer (2002): Breast cancer and breast feeding collaborative reanalysis from individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50302 women with breast cancer and 96973 women without the disease, lancet 360:187-195.

Yeole BB, Jayant K, Jussawalla DJ. Trends in breast cancer incidence in greater Bombay: an epidemiological assessment. Bull World Health Organ 1990;68:245-9.