Retrospective study and evaluation of rapid and ELISA tests for diagnosis of dengue in a tertiary care hospital

Sodani S, Ahirwar S, Mutha A, Hawaldar R

Abstract


In recent years, Dengue has been emerging as a global health problem with approximately 2.5 billion people being affected by it. For a diagnosis of dengue to be made, a fourfold rise in acute and convalescent sera is required. There are several methods in use for diagnosis of dengue. These include detection of virus by cell culture or immunofluorescence, detection of virus antigen by ELISA or rapid kits, detection of Dengue virus antibody by haemagglutination inhibition, complement fixation, neutralization tests or ELISA and detection of virus nucleic acid by reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR) or real time PCR. However, most of these tests are expensive and time consuming and require expertise to carry out. This retrospective study was carried out in MYH, department of microbiology, M.G.M. medical college and M.Y. hospital, Indore, from June 2014 to May 2015 in 329 patients to evaluate performance of rapid and ELISA kits for diagnosis of Dengue infection. .Out of total 329 samples tested by rapid method, 66 samples were positive only for NS1 antigen, 263 samples were positive for either IgM alone or with IgG antibodies. Out of 66 samples positive for NS1 antigen, only 22 samples were positive by capture ELISA for IgM. Out of 263 samples which showed positive antibodies either IgM or IgG by rapid test, 203 were positive by capture ELISA for IgM, 60 samples showed negative results. For early detection of disease, antigen detection by rapid method is a good choice. But the sensitivity of ELISA in detecting antibodies is good. Thus rapid diagnostic kits used for detection of NS1 antigen can be helpful in acute stage of Dengue infection and for detection of antibodies ELISA is the method of choice.
Keywords: Dengue, ELISA, NS1 antigen, IgG, IgM


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